Tschaikovsky - 1812 Overture, op. 49

Tchaikovsky's Overture 1812 expresses Russia's nationalist spirit for the Russians' magnificent victory over Napoleon. In 1880, when he was writing the charming Serenade for Strings, Tchaikovsky undertook to compose a "ceremonial introduction" for an exhibition of industrial art in Moscow. As a theme of his introduction he chose Napoleon's Russia Campaign, which ended with the great victory of the Russian Army. At first the composer intended the introduction to be for outdoor performance and felt that it should be "very loud and noisy". Since then the introduction has become his most famous and most popular concert work. The "1812 Overture" is in fact an introduction to a concerto, in other words is a stand-alone work of orchestral music and not an introduction to opera or a more extensive work. The play describes the invasion of Russia by Napoleon's troops in 1812 and their retreat and defeat in the winter of the same year. Despite

Ricercar (or ricercare)

An Italian term derived from the verb “ricercare” (I’m looking for), which is about an old kind of organic composition of free form, but with mainly a contrapuntal style and character. Also, the term might imply a search for contrapuntal processing, but this is just a hypothesis.

The instruments to which ricercare are mainly dedicated are the lite, the organ, the clavecin and other keyboard instruments.

Ricercare was used as an introductory piece that indicated the search for the tonality of the price that followed it.

Ricercare was widespread in polyphonic form from the 16th century thanks to Marco Antonio Cavazzoni, Luzzasco Luzzaschi and Claudio Merulo, while the homophonic form thanks to A. and G.Gabrieli and preceded the fugue.

However, the greatest artistic flourish of the ricercare observed in the 17th century with Girolamo Frescobaldi, followed by Alessandro Poglieti, Bernardo Pasquini, Johann Kaspar Kerll and Johann Jacob Froberger.

The term was often used in the 29th century by Alfredo Casella and Freancesco Malipiero.