Giuseppe Verdi - Messa da Requiem

Although Requiem was a religious work, it was presented more in concert halls than in churches. Giuseppe Verdi wrote the famous Requiem in honour of his close friend, Alessandro Manzoni, the great Italian poet, writer, and humanist, who died in 1873. It is a powerful fusion of intense drama and passion, with moments of reverent simplicity. Verdi conducted the first performance at St. Mark's Church in Milan on May 22, 1874, the first anniversary of Manzoni's death. Revolutionary composition Verdi's Requiem has been revolutionary in two respects: First, because while the traditional requiem is a prayer of the living for the dead, Verdi's work was a function as much for the living as for the dead. As Verdi would expect, it's a dramatic, theatrical play. Written for four solo voices (soprano, mezzo-soprano, tenor and bass) with full choir and orchestra, it follows the typical Roman Catholic Latin mass for the dead. The "libretto" certainly comes from the dram

Schubert - Piano Quintet in A Major "The Trout" (Die Forelle), D667

A contemporary of Schubert's drawing shows him ridiculously tiny in front of his best friend, the famous Austrian baritone singer and composer Johann Michael Vogl. It was during the happy holiday of 1819, at his friend's cottage in Steyr, where Schubert began writing the famous Piano Quintet of "Trout".

Franz Schubert, in the summer of 1819, went on vacation to Steyr with his opera singer fried Johann Michael Vogl. Revitalized by the rocky mountain scenery, he spent a lot of time playing music with friends. When the local music community asked him to compose music for them, cellist Sylvester Paumgartner recommended that Schubert could use a song he had written two years ago, called Die Forelle.

Schubert duly honored the music community with this wonderful Trout Quintet, adding an additional part that included various variations on the theme of "Trout". Schubert completed the project on his return to Vienna, He sent the score to Steyr's musicians, who first presented it in the winter of 1819. After Schubert's death, Vogl published the manuscript in 1829.

The Quintet, one of Schubert's most beloved chamber music works, has an unusual structure because its parts are five instead of four. The quintet consists of violin, viola, cello, contrabass and piano and was the first major chamber music project for this combination of instruments.


I. Allegro vivace

The first movement, Allegro vivace, begins with a strong chord, leading to a wide melody with dance phrases on the piano. New melodic ideas seem to be subordinated, as Schubert brilliantly portrays the flow of water by flying from one tonality to another.

II. Andante

The second movement, a calmer Andante, consists of two parts, each having three sections. The tone changes and the most energetic second part keeps the trout environment in mind.

III. Scherzo: Presto

The third movenemt, Scherzo: Presto, is strong and optimistic, with an excellent pianistic part that dynamically overlords the four strings. The lively rhythm is typical of Schubert's resourcefulness. An trio is performed by the violin and viola that answer the piano before entering the strings. The part concludes with a re-report of the opening theme.

IV. Thema con variazioni: Andantino - Allegretto

The fourth movement follows, based on the song "The Trout", written two years earlier, in 1817. The composer first exhibits the theme very simply, only in strings, then repeats it with a few trills that share the piano and strings. During the variations that follow, the piano plays lively, there is a more dramatic episode and a wonderful solo of the cello. In the meantime, the theme is constantly heard.

V. Allegro giusto

The final part, Allegro giusto, like the first part, is a quick succession of melodic ideas, leading this wondrously glamorous and cheerful work to a merry finish.